Introduction | Definition | Classification | Myeloid Leukemia | Lymphoid Leukemia | Risk factor | Sign Symptoms | Diagnosis | Management |
It is a group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of bone marrow, lymph system a spleen. Leukemia is a malignancy ( cancer ) of blood cells. In leukemia abnormal blood cells are produced in the bone marrow usually leukemia involves the production of abnormal WBC.
It is the malignant disease of the blood-forming cells especially the neoplastic proliferation of immature leukocytes.
Classification according to time duration –
- Acute Leukemia:- In acute leukemia the abnormal cell production is quick. A large number of leukemia cells accumulate very quickly in the blood and bone marrow. Acute leukemia requires fast and immediate treatment.
- Chronic Leukemia:– It develops slowly over time. This leukemia may not cause specific symptoms at the beginning of their cause. If it left untested the cells make eventually grow to a high number.
Classification Based on Cells:-
(1.) Myeloid Leukemia:-
Myeloid Leukemia further divided into two types:-
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia:- It is also called Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. It involves the rapid growth of myeloid cells. It occi=ur in both adults and children.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia:- It is also called Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. It develops slowly and mainly affects adults.
(2.) Lymphoid Leukemia:-
It also further divided into two types:-
- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia:- It is also known as Lymphocytic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Leukemia. It is the most common type of leukemia in young children, but it can also affect adults.
- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia:– It is a slow-growing cancer of lymphoid cells. That usually affects people of 55 years of age.
Etiology And Risk Factor:-
The exact cause of leukemia is unknown:-
- Chemical Exposure.
- Cigarette Smoking.
- Heredity ( Down Syndrome ).
- Drugs and Dyes.
Sign And Symptoms:-
- The most symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and enlarge spleen or liver.
- Excessive frequent infections.
- Feeling of fatigue and tiredness.
- Night sweats.
- Unintentional weight loss.
- Abdominal pain and swelling.
If leukemia cells have infiltrated the brain, symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of muscle tone.
- Medical history.
- Physical examination.
- Blood test.
- Bone marrow aspiration.
- Lumbar Puncture.
- Chest x-ray.
- Radiation therapy.
- Biological Therapy.
- Target therapy.
- Stemcells Transplantation.
- Risk of infection or ineffective protection related to leukemia ( Leukemia 2nd degree).
- Imbalance nutrition is less than body requirements related to anorexia, pain, or fatigue.
- Disturb body image resulting from alopecia, weight loss related to chemotherapy.