Deafness and Hearing Loss
Deafness is defined by partial or complete hearing loss. Hearing loss is a common handicap worldwide. It may be conductive, sensorineural, and mixed hearing loss. Hearing impairment ranges from mild difficulty in understanding word or sound and then total hearing loss.
Conductive Hearing Loss
Conductive hearing loss occurs when a sound wave is blocked from contact with inner ear nerve fiber because of external or middle ear disorder.
Conductive Hearing loss Causes:-
External Ear:- Impacted Cerumen, obstruction of ear canal.
Middle Ear:- Otitis media, Otosclerosis, Damage to ossicle.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Sensorineural hearing loss occur when sensory nerve fibres that carry impulse to the cerebral cortex are damage.
This type of Hearing loss can not be reverse.
Damage to cochlea or vestibular nerves.
Mixed Hearing Loss
The client has both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
Hearing Loss Risk factors:-
- Family history of sensorineural impairment.
- Low birth weight (<1500 gram).
- Ototoxic medication (Genetomycin).
- Recurrent ear infection.
- Bacterial meningitis.
- Prolong exposure to loud noise.
- Tympanic membrane perforation.
- Acoustic neuroma.
- Congenital malformation of cranial structure.
Hearing Loss Clinical Manifestations:-
- Progressive hearing loss.
- Difficulty following conversation.
- Difficulty in understanding the sound especially background music.
- Hard to differentiate sound.
Hearing Loss Investigation:-
- History collection.
- Physical examination.
- Weber and Rinne test:- It is used to detect lateralization to unaffected ear.
- Pure tone audiometry.
- Psychosocial assessment.
Hearing Loss Management:-
Treatment is based on the cause of hearing loss.
- Ear Irrigation:- The removal of a foreign body from the external canal of the ear.
- Myringotomy:- Removal of fluid from the middle ear.
- Stapedectomy:- Removal of the footplate of stapes from the oval window.
- Tympanoplasty:- Repairing of the perforated tympanic membrane through grafting.
- Hearing Aid:- Hearing aid Is an electronic device through which speech and microphone converted to electrical signals, amplified and reconverted to acoustic signals. The hearing aid is consist of the following part:-
- Microphone:- Receive sound wave and change sound into electrical signals.
- Amplifier:- To increase the strength of electrical signals.
- Receiver:- To change electrical signals into acoustic signals.
Hearing Aid can be worn in the following location:-
- In the ear.
- In the ear canal.
- Behind the ear.
- On the trunk.