Raynaud’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Raynaud disease is a condition in which the small arteries and arterioles causing temporary pallor or cyanosis of digits & change in skin temperature. the exact cause of Raynaud disease is unknown but believe that some risk factor is responsible for this condition.

Raynaud’s Disease | Raynaud’s Syndrome: Symptoms and Causes

Introduction:-

Raynaud disease is a condition in which the small arteries and arterioles causing temporary pallor or cyanosis of digits & change in skin temperature.

Etiology of Raynaud’s Disease:-

the exact cause of Raynaud disease is unknown but believe that some risk factor is responsible for this condition:-

Risk Factor:-

  • Hypersensitivity of digital arteries to clot.
  • Reduce of serotonin [ Normally release in trauma for vasoconstriction ]
  • Congenital predisposition
  • Eating disorder [ Anorexia nervosa ]
  • Obstructive disorder

Types of Raynaud’s Disease:-

  1. Primary Raynaud Disease:-The cause of primary Raynaud’s disease is unknown. It is an assertive disorder & rarely leads to impaired tissue perfusion.
  2. Secondary Raynaud Disease:- It is associated with connective tissue and collagen vascular disorder such as:-
  • Scleroderma  [ hardening of skin]
  • Systemic lupus Erythromatus
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Dermatomyositis [ inflammation of skin]
  • Poliomyelitis

Clinical Feature of Raynaud’s Disease:-

  • Palor skin become bluish
  • Numbness
  • Tingling, sensation
  • Burning pain
  • Cyanosis
  • Gangrene formation

{ Note:- Raynaud’s phenomena is used to the localized intermittent episode of vasoconstriction of small arteries of feet and hand }

Management of Raynaud’s Disease:-

  1. Avoid the particular stimuli such as cold, tobacco, drugs, etc.
  2. keep hand and feet warm and dry.
  3. Protecting all parts of the body from cold, and exposure to prevent reflex, symptomatic vasoconstriction of the digits.
  4. Exposure to cold must be minimized and the patient remains indoor as much as possible.
  5. Provide protection with less cloth, when it comes out.
  6. Hat and gloves should be worn at all times when outside.

Corona Virus or COVID-19: Everything you want to know about!

Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered Coronavirus. which is spreading all over the world too fast. Most of the developed and developing countries are already affected by a coronavirus and now taking precautions to stop the spread of coronavirus. The incidence and types of coronavirus are given below. The most common and less common symptoms of coronavirus and its precaution are described.

Coronavirus or COVID-19

Introduction:-

Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered Coronavirus. which is spreading all over the world too fast. Most of the developed and developing countries are already affected by a coronavirus and now taking precautions to stop the spread of coronavirus. The incidence and types of coronavirus are given below. The most common and less common symptoms of coronavirus and its precaution are described.

Incidence:-

Most people are infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate
respiratory illness and may got recovered without any specific medication.

Older people and children and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses.

What is COVID-19 or coronavirus ?

COVID -19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can trigger what we call a respiratory tract infection.

SARS-CoV-2 is one of the Severe types of coronavirus including the ones that cause severe diseases like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Coronavirus was there !!!

It just didn’t come into existence. They are a large family of viruses that had been on this planet for a long time before the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Coronavirus was thought to cause only mild respiratory infection in people.

Q. What are the different types of Human coronavirus?

Human Corona Virus Types:-

It is divided into four sub-groupings, called Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta. Seven of these can infect people.

The four common ones are:-

  1. 229E (Alpha)
  2. NL63 (Alpha)
  3. OC43 (Beta)
  4. HKU1 (Beta)

The three fewer commons are:-

  1. MERS-CoV [A beta virus which causes MERS]
  2. SARS-CoV [A beta virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)]
  3. SARS-CoV-2 [cause of COVID-19]

What are the symptoms of the coronavirus or Symptoms of COVID-19?

COVID-19 Affects different people in different ways. Some may develop moderate or mild symptoms and recover without any hospitalization.

Most common coronavirus symptoms:-

  • fever
  • Dry cough
  • Tiredness

Less common coronavirus symptoms:-

  • Aches and pains
  • Sore throat
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Headache
  • Loss of taste and smell
  • A rash on skin or discoloration of finger or toes

Serious coronavirus symptoms:-

  • Difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Loss of speech or movement

What is the Incubation period of coronavirus?

On average it takes 5-6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, however it can take up to 14 days.

Treatment:-

There are no specific vaccines or medicines for COVID-19. Treatments are under investigation and will be tested through clinical trials.

Q. What are the precautions we need to adapt to stay away from Corona?

Precautions from coronavirus:-

  • Clean your hands often. Use soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub.
  • Maintain a safe distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
  • Don’t touch your eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • Cover your nose and mouth with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
  • Stay home if you are unwell.
  • If you have a fever, cough, and difficulty in breathing, seek medical attention.
  • Follow the direction of your local health authority.

see also:-

Osteoporosis Causes, Symptoms, Risk factor, and Treatment

Abnormal rarefaction of bone which may be idiopathic or secondary to other conditions.
This disorder leads to the thinning of skeletal and decreases precipitation of lime salt.
Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural determination of bone tissue that leads to increase bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture or breakdown (hips, vertebrae, forearm).

Osteoporosis: Causes, Risk Factor, Symptoms, and Treatment

Introduction:-

  • Abnormal rarefaction of bone which may be idiopathic or secondary to other conditions.
  • This disorder leads to the thinning of skeletal and decreases precipitation of lime salt.

Osteoporosis Definition:-

  • Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural determination of bone tissue that leads to increase bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture or breakdown (hips, vertebrae, forearm).

Osteoporosis Etiology or Osteoporosis causes:-

  • Increase aged
  • Poor diet(low calcium and vitamin D)
  • chronic alcoholism
  • Tobacco, smoking
  • Lack of exposure to sunlight
  • lack of physical exercise
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Estrogen deficiency after menopause
  • surgical removal of ovaries
  • Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone 
  • Certain medication (chemotherapy, Anti-seizure)
  • Family history of genetic 
  • Excessive consumption of soft drinks(increase amount of phosphoric acid)

Osteoporosis Pathophysiology:-

  1. Due to any etiological factor
  2. calcium resorption
  3. increase in osteoclast activity
  4. Brittle or fragile bones
  5. Reduction in resistance of bone towards physical stress
  6. Fracture ,improper gait and reduction in height 
  •   Bone is dynamic tissue that undergoes that continue remodeling (the process by which old bone is replaced by new bone)
  • the remolding sequence start with activation of osteoclast which resorb a small portion of bone over a relatively short period of time (7-10 days)bone formation then take place as osteoblast form an organic matrix that is subsequently mineralized.

Clinical Manifestation or Osteoporosis Sign and Symptoms:-

  • Sudden onset of severe back pain .
  • Kyphosis (posterior curvature of spine or humpback)
  • Abdominal distention 
  • Impaired respiration due to restricted lung expansion
  • Loss of denture or teeth (due to loss in mandible) and finally fracture specially hip,vertebrae,forearm
  • Improper gait, and reduction in height

Osteoporosis Investigation:-

  • Physical examination 
  • Family history
  • dual-energy X-ray 
  • Blood test 
  • Urine calcium level
  • CT,MRI

Management of Osteoporosis:-

Medial management of osteoporosis :-

  • Bisphosphonate
  • Estrogen therapy (in early menopause)

Nursing management of osteoporosis:-

  • Pain related to fracture
  • Altered nutrition less then body requirement related to calcium and vitamin D deficiency
  • Risk of fracture due to disease condition softening of bone
  • Impaired physical activity due to disease condition.

Nursing Responsibility:-

  • Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D
  • Regular weight bearing exercise 
  • Avoidance of alcohol and tobacco
  • Assess clients at risk of fracture for activity level and dietary adequacy and programme appropriate teaching to prevent fracture
  • Assessment include visual assessment medication that may cause dizziness or postural HTN.
  • Difficulties with balance or co-ordination as well as the home environment for potential safety from hazards.
  • Evaluation of the bone setting is performed via admission assessment discussion with the client consultation with specialist in social service and home safety evaluation by visiting nursing.
  • Instruct the client who are prompt to dizziness to get up slowly from a lying position sitting on the site of the bed first.
  • An aid to ambulation such as a cane or walker may also indicated to prevent falling.
  • Handrails should be also available or provided especially in the bathroom or toilets.     

Chronic kidney disease ( chronic Renal failure ): Its causes, Pathophysiology, Sign And Symptoms, Medical and Nursing Management

Chronic kidney disease is a type of kidney disease in which there is a gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. Chronic kidney disease is progressive irreversible destruction and dimension in renal function resulting in uremia and azotemia. It occurs from several days or months to years………..

Definition | Etiology | Pathophysiology | Clinical Manifestation | Investigation | medical Management | Nursing Management |

 

Definition:-

Chronic kidney disease is a type of kidney disease in which there is a gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.

Chronic kidney disease is progressive irreversible destruction and dimension in renal function resulting in uremia and azotemia.

It occurs from several days or months to years.

Etiology of Chronic kidney disease:-

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Recurrent episodes of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic glomerulonephritis
  • Recurrent pyelonephritis
  • Hypotension
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Obstruction in the urinary tract
  • Renal artery obstruction or stenosis
  • Autoimmune disease (SLE)
  • Vesico ureteric reflex
  • Medication or Drugs
  • Poor intake of fluids

Pathophysiology of Chronic kidney disease:-

  • Due to the etiological factor
  • Deterioration or destruction of nephron with progressive loss of renal function
  • GFR (Glomerular filtration rate) falls and clearance of waste is reduced.
  • Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen level rise
  • Hypertrophy in remaining nephrons as they required to filter large load of solutes.
  • kidney losses their ability to concentrate urine adequately.
  • In an attempt to continue excreting the solutes. A large volume of dilute urine may be passed.
  • fluid depletion (loss)
  • Tubules gradually lose their ability to reabsorb electrolytes.
  • Polyurea and results a large amount of Na and water excretion
  • Disease progress toxic condition or toxicity
  • Renal Failure

 Clinical Manifestation of Chronic kidney disease:-

Nervous System:-

  • Confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue, malaise, restlessness

Cardiovascular system:-

  • Hypertension
  • cardiac Disrrhythemia
  • Pericarditis
  • Pericardial Effusion
  • Myocarditis
  • Endocarditis

Intiguimatory System:-

  • Pallor appearance
  • Orange, green, or grey in the color of skin (because of retaining of Urochrome ligand)
  • Thin and brittle nails and hair
  • Ecchymosis (bruise) >1cm
  • Petechiae
  • Purpura
  • Pruritis (a severe form of itching)
  • Edema of Anasarca

G.I. Tract:-

  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Constipation, Diarrhea
  • Hiccups
  • Anorexia
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Gastritis
  • Stomatitis
  • Gingivitis
  • Esophagitis
  • A bitter or salty taste
  • Ammonic or fishy odor from the breath

Respiratory System:-

  • Respiratory Distress
  • dyspnea
  • Shortness of breath

Blood or Hematology:-

  • Anemia

Reproductive System:-

  • amenorrhea
  • Infertility (impotence & sterility)
  • Oligospermia
  • Testicular atrophy
  • Decreased libido

Musculoskeletal System:-

  • Fatigue
  • Muscular cramps
  • Decrease muscular strength
  • Bone pain

Urinary system:-

  • Polyurea
  • Oliguria
  • Hematuria
  • Renal insufficiency with azotemia

Metabolic changes:-

  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Increased BUN (Blood urea nitrogen)
  • Serum creatinine
  • Serum uric acid
  • Decreased GFR (Glomerular filtration rate)

Investigation of Chronic kidney disease:-

  • History collection
  • Physical examination
  • Urine culture and urine routine
  • Urine measurement
  • BUN (Blood urea nitrogen)
  • CT scan of K.U.B.
  • I.V.P. (Intravenous pyelography)
  • Renal Angiography

Management of Chronic kidney disease:-

Medical Management:-

  • Calcium preparation and phosphorus binders.
  • Aluminum-based Antacids
  • Antihypertensive 
  • Diuretics
  • Vitamine and minerals supplements
  • Iron sulfate and folic acid (in severe anemia)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (administered to correct metabolic acidosis)

Surgical management:-

  • Catheterization
  • Dialysis
  • Renal transplantation

Nursing Management of Chronic kidney disease:-

  • Fluid volume excess related to the inability to kidney to promote or excrete urine.
  • Fluid volume deficit.
  • Altered nutrition level.
  • The risk of infection.
  • Disturb thought process.
  • The risk of impaired normal skin integrity related to edema.

Oral cancer: Common sites, Incidence, Clinical Manifestation, Investigation, Palliative care, Management

Oral cancer is also known as mouth cancer.
Oral cancer is cancer that develops in the tissue of the mouth or throat. It belongs to a large group of cancer called head and neck cancer. Most develop in squamous cells found in your mouth, tongue, and lips. It can be fatal if not diagnosed in the early stages.
“Oral cancer is defined as uncontrolled growth or sore in mouth.that does not go away. “

Introduction | Definition | Common Sites of Oral Cancer | Incidence | Clinical Manifestation | Diagnostic Evaluation | Management | Palliative care |

Introduction:-

  • Oral cancer is also known as mouth cancer.
  • Oral cancer is cancer that develops in the tissue of the mouth or throat. It belongs to a large group of cancer called head and neck cancer. Most develop in squamous cells found in your mouth, tongue, and lips. It can be fatal if not diagnosed in the early stages.

*What is the definition of oral cancer?

Definition:-

  • “Oral cancer is defined as uncontrolled growth or sore in mouth.that does not go away. “
  • Oral cancer and high include cancer of lips, tongue, cheeks, the floor of mouth hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat).
  • Oral cancer is a type of head and neck cancer is any tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
  • It may arise as from distant sites of the origin or by extrusion from neighboring anatomic sites such as a nasal cavity.

*What are the common sites of oral cancer?

Common sites of oral cancer:-

  • Lower lips.
  • Lateral or under the surface of the tongue.
  • Buccal mucosa.
  • Hard and soft palate.
  • Pharyngeal wall.

Incidence:-

  • More common after 45 yr of age – male: female is 2:1.
  • Oral cancer accounts for 50% of 70% of total cancer mortality.

*Enlist the clinical manifestation of oral cancer?

Clinical manifestation:-

  1. Leukoplakia:- White patches on the mucosa of the mouth or tongue.
  2. Hyperkeratosis:- Hard and lethargy White patches.
  3. Erythroplakia:- Rad velvety patch on the mouth or tongue.
  • Painful ulceration.
  • Soreness of tongue.
  • Increased salivation.
  • Dysphagia.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Toothache.
  • Earache.
  • Difficulty in chewing/mastication.
  • Mouth, lip, tongue, maybe pale or dark color or disorder.

*Enlist the diagnostics evaluation of oral cancer?

Diagnostic evaluation:-

  • P.E.T.
  • X-ray.
  • CT scan.
  • MRI.
  • Biopsy.
  • Oral exfoliative cytology.
  • Toluidine blue test.

*Describe the management of oral cancer?

Management:-

Surgical management:-

  • remove tumor.
  • Removal of the cancerous lymph node.
  • Glossectomy (partial /complete).
  • Removal of the lower jaw.

Medical management:

  • Radiation therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Immunotherapies.
  • Molecularly target therapy:- Targeted cancer therapies are drugs or other substances that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules that are involved in the growth progression and spread of cancer.

Management in case of metastatic cancer:-

  • Radial neck dissection:- It includes wide excision of the involved area.
  • A lesion with the removal of regional lymph nodes the deep cervical lymph nodes and their lymphatic Channels (depending upon the extensiveness) the sternomastoid muscle, internal jugular vein mandible, the submaxillary gland.
  • Modified neck dissection:- It involves dissection of major cervical lymphatic vessels and lateral cervical space with preservation of nerve blood vessels and jugular vein.

Palliative care:-

  • It aims to treat symptoms and make the patient more comfortable.
  • Dysphagia – Gastrostomy
  • Pain – Analgesic, and narcotics.
  • Increased salivary secretion:- Frequent suction of the oral cavity.

Nursing management:-

  • The risk for ineffective airway clearance related to oral surgery.
  • The risk of imbalanced nutrition less than body requirement related to oral surgery.
  • Impaired verbal communication related to glossectomy.
  • Disturbed body image related to surgical excision of the tongue.

Lung cancer: Risk Factor, Types, Stages of Cancer, Symptoms, Investigation, Nursing Management

Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the cells that make up the lungs. Many other types of cancer such as breast or kidney can spread to the lungs.
lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer reportedly in Indian males. It accounts for 6.8% of all malignancies in India.Commonly occur in individuals more than 50yrs of age who have a long history of cigarette smoking.

Introduction | Definition |Risk factor |Types of Lung Cancer | Pathophysiology | Stages of Cancer | Clinical Manifestation | Diagnostic Evaluation | Management |Nursing Management |

Introduction:-

  • Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the cells that make up the lungs. Many other types of cancer such as breast or kidney can spread to the lungs.
  • lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer reportedly in Indian males. It accounts for 6.8% of all malignancies in India.
  • The incidence is estimated to be about 6.6 per 100000 in males and 1.7 per 100000 in females.
  • Commonly occur in individuals more than 50yrs of age who have a long history of cigarette smoking.

* What is the definition of lung cancer or define lung cancer?

Definition:-

  • “Lung cancer also known as lung carcinoma is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissue of the lung.”
  • “Lung cancer is a neoplasm of the lung.”

* What are the causes of lung cancer?

Etiology:-

  • The exact cause is unknown.

* What are the risk factors of lung cancer?

Risk factor:-

  • Genetic (transformation from one generation to another generation.)
  • Age (mostly in older age, 65 or older age, the average age is 70 year)
  • Past lung disease ( can cause inflammation and scarring in the lung, eg: Tuberculosis, COPD)
  • Radiation therapy to the chest (eg. breast therapy, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma)
  • Second-Hand Smoking
  • Smoking
  • Diet (low intake of vitamin-A, unbalanced diet)
  • Environmental factor :- Asbestosis,Radon,Tar,Arsenic,Vinyl chloride)

* What are the types of lung cancer? Or Enlist and explain the types of lung cancer?

* Explain NSCLC? What are the subtypes of NSCLC? Explain with its characteristics?

Types of Lung cancer:-

There are two types of lung cancer:-

  1. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
  2. Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC):-

  • NSCLC is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma.
  • NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancer.
  • NSCLC is relatively insensitive to chemotherapy compared to small cell lung cancer.
  • When possible they are primarily treated by surgical resection with curative intent, although chemotherapy has been used increasingly both pre-operative and post-operative.

The most common type of NSCLC are:-

  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma
  1. Squamous cell carcinoma:- Arrives from bronchial epithelium & is more centrally located and its growth rate is slow.

Characteristics:-

  • Accounts for 20-30% of lung cancers.
  • more common in men. Centrally located producing early symptoms of non-productive cough and hemoptysis.
  • do not have a strong tendency to metastasis.

Response to therapy:-

  • Surgically resection may be attempted.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation.

2. Adenocarcinoma:- It arrives from the periphery of the lung and looks like nodules often metastasized. Its growth rate is moderate.

Characteristics:-

  • Accounts for 30-40% of lung cancer.
  • The most common lung cancer in people.who has not smoked more common in women.
  • Peripherally located often has no clinical manifestation until widespread metastasis is present.

Response to therapy:-

  • Surgical resection may be attempted depending on the staging.
  • Doesn’t respond well to chemotherapy.

3. Large cell carcinoma (undifferentiated):-

It is the fast-growing carcinoma that arrives from the periphery branches of bronchi.

characteristics:-

  • Accounts for 10% of lung cancers.
  • Composed of large cells that are anaplastic and often arise in the bronchi.
  • It is highly metastatic via lymphatics and blood.

Response to therapy:-

  • Surgery is not usually attempted.because of the high rate of metastasis.
  • A tumor may be radiosensitive but often recurs.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC):-

  1. Small cell carcinoma (SCC):– Arrives from the major bronchi & spread by infiltration along with bronchial walls. The growth rate is very rapid.

Characteristics:-

  • Accounts for about 20% of lung cancers.
  • The most malignant form of the lung.
  • Spread early via lymphatics & bloodstream, frequent metastasis to the brain.
  • Associated with endocrine disturbances.

Response to therapy:-

  • Chemotherapy’s mainstay of treatment but overall poor prognosis.
  • Radiation is used as adjuvant therapy and palliative measure.

* Describe or explain the pathophysiology of lung cancer?

Pathophysiology:-

  • The carcinogens bind to the DNA
  • Damage it.
  • Cellular changes and abnormal growth
  • Malignant cells.

As the damaged DNA is passed on to daughter cells, the DNA undergoes further changes and becomes unstable with the accumulation of genetic changes the pulmonary epithelium undergoes a malignant transformation.

* What are the stages of cancer?

Stages of cancer:-

  1. T o:- No evidence of tumor.
  2. T x:- Tumor proved by cytologic studies, but visualize by radiography.
  3. T is:- Carcinoma in situ.
  4. T 1:- Tumor 3cm or less.
  5. T 2:- Tumor greater than 3cm.
  6. T 3:- Direct extension of the chest wall.
  7. T 4:- Tumor invading mediastinal.
  8. N o:- No nodule metastasis.
  9. N 1-3:- According to the progress of nodule involvement.
  10. M o:- NO known metastasis.
  11. M 1:- Presence of distant metastasis.

* What are the clinical manifestation or Enlist clinical manifestation of cancer?

Enlist clinical manifestation:-

  • Asymptomatic till diagnosis.
  • Persistent.
  • Non-productive cough at earlier and in later productive cough.
  • Blood tinged sputum.
  • Chest pain.
  • Dyspnoea.
  • Wheezes.
  • Palpable lymphnodes in neck or axilla.
  • Unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm.
  • Superior vena cava obstruction. (Due to into the thoracic spread of malignancy )
  • Pericardial effusion and dysrhythmia. (if mediastinum is involved)
  • Anorexia.
  • Fatigue.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Nausea, Vomiting.

* What is the diagnostic evaluation or Enlist diagnostic evaluation of cancer?

Diagnostic Evaluation:-

  • Chest x-ray:- shows the presence of tumor or evidence of metastasis to ribs or vertebrae.
  • CT-Scan and MRI:- shows the location and extent of masses.
  • PET:- Helps in early detection of cancer staging and monitoring effects of treatment.
  • Sputum specimen for cellular studies.
  • Bronchoscopy:-Helps in direct visualization, allows taking biopsy specimen.
  • Mediastinoscopy:- Involve insertion of scope through a small anterior chest incision into the mediastinum. It is done to examine metastasis in the anterior mediastinum or in the chest extrapleural.
  • Biopsy.
  • Pulmonary Angiography.
  • Lungs scan.
  • Fine needle aspiration.

* What are the complications of lung cancer?

Complication:-

  • Airway obstruction
  • Atelectasis
  • Plural effusion
  • Pulmonary Abscess
  • Pneumonia
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome

Prognosis:-

Prognosis is generally poor,13%of patients with lung cancer survivors.

* Describe the management of lung cancer?

Management of Lung cancer:-

Surgical management:-

  1. lobectomy
  2. wedge resection
  3. Pneumonectomy

Medical management:-

  1. Radiation therapy
  2. Chemotherapy
  3. Laser surgery

Nursing management:-

  1. Ineffective breathing pattern resulting from compression of lung tissue.
  2. Impaired gas exchange resulting from retained secretion and occluded bronchial.
  3. Acute pain related to surgical incision tissue trauma and disruption of inter-coastal nerves, presence of chest tube.
  4. Fear and anxiety related to situational crises, change in health status, and perceived threat of death.

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Breast Cancer