What do you mean by Otosclerosis?

Introduction to Otosclerosis:-

Otosclerosis is a condition in which there is abnormal bone growth inside the middle ear cavity. Otosclerosis is a condition that results from the formation of new abnormal spongy bone around the oval window with the resulting fixation of the steps.

Otosclerosis is a heredity disorder. Otosclerosis is a common cause of hearing loss i young adult. In otosclerosis the stapes begins to fused with surrounding bones, eventually becoming fixed to it, so stapes can not vibrate. This means sound no longer transmitted into the inner ear efficiently.

A. Otosclerosis Normal Anatomy

What causes Otosclerosis?

Exact cause of Otosclerosis is unknown. But there are some risk factors of Otosclerosis those are-

  • 50% of cases hereditary. this is the main cause of Otosclerosis.
  • Otosclerosis is more common in females in pregnancy.
  • Otosclerosis can cause if a person to have a family history of hearing loss.

What are the Sign and symptoms of Otosclerosis?

The sign and symptoms of Otosclerosis are –

  • In Otosclerosis hearing loss may be Unilateral or Bilateral.
  • Tinnitus.
  • Vertigo.
  • Postural Imbalance.
  • Pinkish discoloration (Red color tympanic membrane) known as Schwartz sign which indicates vascular changes in-ear.
(B) Arrow points to the sclerotic process at the foot
of the stapes. (C) Stapes are broken away surgically from its diseased base. The hole in the footplate provides an area where
an instrument can grasp the plate. (D) The footplate is removed from its base. Some otosclerotic tissue may remain,
and tissue is placed over it. (E) Robinson stainless-steel prosthesis in position

How is Otosclerosis Diagnosis?

  • Otoscopic Examination.
  • Audiometry.
  • Hearing test.

How is Otosclerosis is Treated?

Otosclerosis Management:-

Otosclerosis Non-Surgical:-

There is no known non-surgical treatment for Otosclerosis. But some physicians believe that by giving Sodium fluoride can mature abnormal spongy bone growth and prevent the breakdown of the bone tissue. Amplification with a hearing aid can also help.

Otosclerosis Surgical Management:-

A Stapedectomy For Otosclerosis. It is the surgical removal of stapes and a prosthesis or metal wire is connected between the incus and oval window. A stapedectomy, performed through the canal, includes removing the stapes superstructure and portion of the footplate and embeddings a tissue join and an appropriate prosthesis. A few surgeons elect to evacuate as it was a little portion of the stapes footplate (ie, stapedotomy). Notwithstanding the strategy utilized, the prosthesis bridges the gap between the incus and the inner ear, giving better sound conduction. Stapes surgery is exceptionally effective in improving hearing. Adjust unsettling influence or genuine vertigo, which seldom occurs in other middle ear surgical methods, can happen for a short time after stapedectomy.

Otosclerosis Post Operative care:-

  • Do not blow nose for 2-3 weeks after surgery.
  • Avoid contact with people who have respiratory and other infections.
  • Avoid activity that causes a sudden pressure change in the ear such as Scuba diving, flying, driving into the mountain.
  • Assess for facial nerve damage and muscle weakness.
  • Avoid bending, lifting, straining. It may cause dizziness.
  • Administer antivertigo, and antiemetic.

Reference:-

  1. Brunner and Suddarth’s, Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 10th edition, Assessment and Management of Patients With Hearing and Balance Disorders.

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