Leukemia: Also known as Blood Cancer.

Introduction | Definition | Classification | Myeloid Leukemia | Lymphoid Leukemia | Risk factor | Sign Symptoms | Diagnosis | Management |

Introduction:-

It is a group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of bone marrow, lymph system a spleen. Leukemia is a malignancy ( cancer ) of blood cells. In leukemia abnormal blood cells are produced in the bone marrow usually leukemia involves the production of abnormal WBC.

Definition:-

It is the malignant disease of the blood-forming cells especially the neoplastic proliferation of immature leukocytes.

Classification:-

Classification according to time duration –

  1. Acute Leukemia:- In acute leukemia the abnormal cell production is quick. A large number of leukemia cells accumulate very quickly in the blood and bone marrow. Acute leukemia requires fast and immediate treatment.
  2. Chronic Leukemia:– It develops slowly over time. This leukemia may not cause specific symptoms at the beginning of their cause. If it left untested the cells make eventually grow to a high number.

Classification Based on Cells:-

(1.) Myeloid Leukemia:-

Myeloid Leukemia further divided into two types:-

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia:- It is also called Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. It involves the rapid growth of myeloid cells. It occi=ur in both adults and children.
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia:- It is also called Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. It develops slowly and mainly affects adults.

(2.) Lymphoid Leukemia:- 

It also further divided into two types:-

  • Acute Lymphoid Leukemia:- It is also known as Lymphocytic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Leukemia. It is the most common type of leukemia in young children, but it can also affect adults.
  • Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia:– It is a slow-growing cancer of lymphoid cells. That usually affects people of 55 years of age.

Etiology And Risk Factor:-

The exact cause of leukemia is unknown:-

Risk factors:-

  • Radiation.
  • Chemical Exposure.
  • Cigarette Smoking.
  • Heredity ( Down Syndrome ).
  • Drugs and Dyes.

Sign And Symptoms:-

  • The most symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and enlarge spleen or liver.
  • Excessive frequent infections.
  • Dyspnoea.
  • Feeling of fatigue and tiredness.
  • Night sweats.
  • Unintentional weight loss.
  • Abdominal pain and swelling.

If leukemia cells have infiltrated the brain, symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of muscle tone.

Diagnosis:-

  • Medical history.
  • Physical examination.
  • Blood test.
  • Bone marrow aspiration.
  • Lumbar Puncture.
  • Chest x-ray.

Management:-

  • Chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy.
  • Biological Therapy.
  • Target therapy.
  • Stemcells Transplantation.

Nursing Management:-

  • Risk of infection or ineffective protection related to leukemia ( Leukemia 2nd degree).
  • Imbalance nutrition is less than body requirements related to anorexia, pain, or fatigue.
  • Disturb body image resulting from alopecia, weight loss related to chemotherapy.

Related Post:-

Cancer

Breast Cancer

Lung Cancer

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Oral Cancer

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