Aneurysm: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Introduction | Risk Factor | Classification of Aneurysm | Pathophysiology | Clinical Manifestation | Diagnostic Evaluation | Complication Of Aneurysm | Management |

Aneurysm: Causes, Risk factor, Diagnosis and Treatment

Introduction:-

The aneurysm is defined as a permanent localized dilation, stretching, and ballooning of an artery or blood vessels to around 50% increases in the size.

Etiology of Aneurysm:-

The exact cause is unknown.

The risk factor of Aneurysm:-

  • Atherosclerosis.
  • a congenital defect is an arterial wall.
  • Genetically weakness of the wall.
  • Hypertension.
  • Trauma or injury.
  • Micro-tic infection.
  • Elevated cholesterol level.
  • Impaired nutrition.

Classification of Aneurysm:-

  1. According to the location:- They are described according to specific vessels in which they develop. Example: Aortic aneurysm, iliac aneurysm, thoracic aneurysm, lastly more preciously according to the area of vessels they affect.
  2. According to Etiological factor:- Aneurysm is classified according to cause such as atherosclerotic aneurysm, microtia, aneurysm, hypertension aneurysm, traumatic aneurysm.
  3. According to Appearance: Classification of the aneurysm is sometimes based on the shape and anatomic feature or size.
  4. Saccular Aneurysm:- Saccular aneurysm involves all three layers of the artery. An outpouching of an artery at the point where the media is thin.
  5. Fusiform Aneurysm:- Fusiform aneurysm involves the entire circumference of the vessels. It is a localized uniform dilation of an artery.
  6. Dissecting Aneurysm:- In dissecting aneurysm hematoma is present in the arterial wall that separates the layers of the arterial wall.
  7. False Aneurysm:- False aneurysm results from the development of a sac around a hematoma that maintain communication with the lumen of an artery where the wall has been ruptured or penetrated.

Pathophysiology of Aneurysm:-

Abdominal aortic aneurysm four types more often than the thoracic aneurysm. the Natural cause of an untreated aneurysm is to expand or rupture. The aorta is under greater stress than the rest of the arterial system because of its large diameter and its exposure to the high pressure during each systolic ejection of blood.

Clinical Manifestation of Aneurysm:-

  • Awareness of pulsation mask in the abdomen.
  • Abdominal pain and back pain.
  • Pain in lower abdomen, groin, and genitalia.
  • Decrease hemoglobin.
  • Sign of hemorrhage.
  • Shock.
  • Abdominal Distension.

Diagnostic Evaluation of Aneurysm:-

  • Physical Examination.
  • USG.
  • CT Scan.
  • Abdominal Aortography.

The complication of Aneurysm:-

  • Coronary artery disease.
  • Pulmonary obstructive disease.
  • Pre-renal failure.
  • Spinal cord ischemia.
  • Change in sexual function.
  • Severe bleeding.

Management of Aneurysm:-

  1. Surgical Management:- Surgery is usually not performed on clients with a less symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm smaller than 4-5 cm. Every six months a USG is indicated to determine whether any change in the size occurred.
  • Endovascular Procedure:- It is a newer method for lower emergency treatment to repair abdominal aneurysms. small incisions are made in the groin and avascular into the aorta. deflated balloon and tightly wrapped polyester cloth graft are placed, when properly position the graft is securely place by inflation the balloon and opening the graft of the diameter needed to prevent a blood clot in the aneurysm then the balloon is deflated and removed along with the catheter at each end of the graft hooks are present that help secures it to the inner walls of the aorta.
  • Aneurysm Repair:- Surgical repair is usually recommended for all aneurysm greater than 6 cm. find.

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