Rheumatic Heart Disease: Sign and Symptoms, Pathophysiology

Incidence | Pathophysiology | Clinical Manifestation | Diagnostic Evaluation | Management |

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Rheumatic Heart Disease usually affects the children and it is still the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood and adolescence.

Incidence of Rheumatic Heart Disease:-

  • R.H.D. is usually affected by 5-15 years of the child.
  • 1-2 case/lakh in developed countries.
  • 100 case/ lakh in developing countries.
  • 3% of people affected after the beta-hemolytic streptococci infection.

Pathophysiology of Rheumatic Heart Disease:-

  • due to the etiological factor.
  • persistent infection of through streptococci.
  • The antigen of beta-hemolytic streptococci reacts.
  • cross-react with myosin and sarcolemma membrane.
  • bind the receptor on the heart.
  • The inflammatory response in the cardiac muscle.
  • severe & permanent heart damage.

Clinical Manifestation of Rheumatic Heart Disease:-

  • carditis
  • cardiomegaly
  • murmur
  • pericarditis
  • chest pain
  • AV defect
  • Arterial fibrillation
  • fever
  • dysrhythmia
  • Pneumonia signs
  • Involuntary movement or speech after 3 months of disease.

Diagnostic Evaluation of Rheumatic Heart Disease:-

  • blood test
  • throat swab
  • chest x-ray
  • ECG
  • 2D echo

Management of Rheumatic Heart Disease:-

Medical management:-

  • Anti-biotics
  • Aspirin
  • Corticosteroid
  • Bed rest & Supporting therapy

Nursing Management:-

  • Chronic pain related to an inflammatory response.
  • Activity intolerance related to reducing cardiac pressure and enforced bed-rest.
  • Imbalanced nutrition less the body requirement related to severe inflammation & fatigue.
  • The risk for ineffective therapeutic regimen management related to the need for life long therapy.

Related Post:-

Myocardial Infarction

Coronary Heart Disease

Angina Pectoris

Raynaud’s Disease

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