Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Causes, Sign, and Symptoms

Define | Etiology | Risk Factor | Pathophysiology | Sign and Symptoms | Diagnostic Evaluation | Early Management | Late Management | Nursing Management |

Myocardial Infarction or Heart Attack

*What is the definition of myocardial infarction?

Define:-

M.I. is defined as Damage or Death of myocardial muscle due to Abrupt blood flow to the Heart. the blockage may be caused by the formation of thrombus in the coronary artery, a sudden progression of atherosclerosis, prolong narrowing of arteries.

*What is the Etiology of myocardial infarction?

Etiology:-

  • atherosclerosis
  • arteries prolong narrowing
  • thrombus
  • Agonist

*What are the risk factors of myocardial infarction?

Risk factors:-

  • genetic cardiac disorder
  • smoking
  • alcohol consumption
  • diet – like high cholesterol, high fat
  • activity – low physical exercise

*Explain the pathophysiology or what is the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction?

Pathophysiology:-

  • due to etiological factor
  • myocardial ischemia
  • decrease myocardial oxygen supply
  • increase cellular hypoxia
  • decrease myocardial contractility
  • decrease arterial pressure
  • stimulation of baroreceptor and chemo-receptor sympathetic response
  • increase myocardial contractility
  • increase heart rate
  • increase myocardial oxygen demand further myocardial ischemia
  • necrosis of myocardial cells
  • myocardial infarction or Heart Attack

*what are the clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction?

Clinical Manifestation:-

  • severe chest pain(more than angina pectoris )
  • pain may radiant to the chest, shoulder, neck, jaw, back
  • nausea
  • unexplained anxiety
  • dizziness
  • dyspnoea
  • sweating

*Write the diagnostic evaluation of myocardial infarction?

Diagnostic Evaluation:-

ECG (elevated S & T segment)

laboratory test: serum creatinine kinase, myoglobin, cardiac troponin, ESR, (all level is increased)

*Write the complete management of myocardial infarction?

Early management:-

  • morphine sulfate
  • Anti-hematic: Domperidone, Alizapride
  • Acute de perfusion therapy
  • Primary percutaneous coronary intervention
  • Maintaining vessel potassium
  • Adjunctive therapy

late management:-

  • lifestyle modification: Diet control, stop smoking, regular exercise
  • Secondary prevention: Anti-platelets, beta-blocker

Nursing management:-

The probable nursing diagnosis will be :

  • pain related to an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand.
  • Anxiety-related to chest pain, fear of death, threatening environment.
  • Decrease cardiac output related to impaired contractility.
  • Activity intolerance related to insufficient oxygenation to perform ADL and deconditioning effect of bed-rest.
  • The risk for injury related to the dissolution of the protective clot.

Related Post:-

Coronary Heart Disease

Angina Pectoris

Raynaud’s Disease

2 thoughts on “Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Causes, Sign, and Symptoms

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s