Coronary Heart Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Etiology | Pathophysiology | Types of CHD | CLinical Manifestation | Complication | Diagnostic Evaluation | Management|

Coronary Heart Disease-Coronary Artery Disease

In coronary heart, disease atherosclerosis develops in coronary arteries causing them to become narrow and block this leads to decrease or stop the blood supply to the heart muscles.

Etiology of coronary heart disease:-

  1. Non-modifiable:-

  • Genetic Heredity:- Children whose parents had heart disease are at a higher risk of C.H.D.
  • Race:- The African & American have 45% greater chances of developing CHD.
  • Age:- with increasing age risk & severity of CHD are increases.
  • Gender:- males of younger age and females after menopause is at high risk of CHD.

2. Modifiable factor:-

  • Elevated serum lipid level
  • A habitual diet high in fat and cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Heavy alcohol consumption
  • Personality types
  • Sedatory live
  • Psychological stream
  • Improper lifestyle

Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease:-

  • Due to the etiological factor
  • Localized accumulation of lipid, fibrous tissue, or thrombus
  • Arterial narrowing or occlusion
  • vascular changes occur that affect the functional ability or coronary arterial
  • The deficit in myocardial oxygen supply
  • Angina pectoris M.I. / cardiac arrest
  • Death

Types of coronary artery disease:-

  • Type 1 st:- fatty, streaks lipid deposit in the int em of the arterial wall.
  • Type 2 nd:- Inflammatory response takes macrophage to ingest lipid.
  • Type 3rd:- Smooth muscle cell proliferate and form a fibrous cap are the deal fatty cell.
  • Type 4th:- Fibrotic layer and plaque formation.
  • Type 5th:- Distributed internal structure along with moderate disease that causes a decrease in the size of the lumen.
  • Type 6th:- Rupture of plaque producing cavity thrombus with partial occlusion of the lumen.

Clinical Manifestation of coronary artery disease:-

  • Dysrhythmia
  • Restlessness
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise


  • Heart Failure
  • Heart block
  • Angina Pectoris

Diagnostic Evaluation of coronary artery disease:-

  • ECG
  • 2D Echo
  • Angiography
  • Blood Investigation
  • LFT

Management of coronary artery disease:-

  1. Reduce Risk Factor:-

  • Primary and secondary prevention causes are used for all major risk factors.
  • Health professionals provide guidance & counseling related to disease conditions.
  • The health professional team motivates the client to stop smoking and alcohol consumption.
  • maintain ideal body weight through the physical exercise
  • Dietary modification according to disease condition & according to dietitian prescription.
  • Encourage the client to perform physical activity and participate in the exercise.
  • Behavioral therapy or diversional therapy to reduce stress.

2. Restore blood supply:-

  • PTCA
  • PCA
  • Intra coronary stent
  • laser ablation

3. Pharmacological management:-

  • Analgesics to relieve pain
  • Vasoldilatiors
  • ACE inhibitors

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