The varicose vein or varicosity is an abnormally dilated, tortuous superficial vein caused by an incompetent venous valve.
varicose veins are permanently distended veins that develop from the loss of valvular competence faulty valves elevated venous pressure causing distention and tortuosity of superficial veins.
The aneurysm is defined as a permanent localized dilation, stretching, and ballooning of an artery or blood vessels to around 50% increases in the size. The exact cause of aneurysm is unknown. Aneurysm is classified into 7 types according to location, Etiological factor, appearance, saccular, fusiform, dissecting, and false aneurysm.
Rheumatic Heart Disease usually affects the children and it is still the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood and adolescence. R.H.D. is usually affected by 5-15 years of the child. 1-2 case/lakh in developed countries. 100 case/ lakh in developing countries. 3% of people affected after the beta-hemolytic streptococci infection.
Acute kidney injury Previously called Acute Renal Failure is an abrupt loss of kidney functions that develops within 7 days.
It is characterized or manifested by decrease glomerular filtration rate, level of serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen rise and oliguria or anuria.
Its cause is numerous. Generally, it occurs because of damage to kidney tissue caused by decreased blood flow (ischemic kidney), low blood pressure or hypotension, exposure to substance harmful to the kidney, inflammatory process, or an obstruction of the urinary tract.
Chronic kidney disease ( chronic Renal failure ): Its causes, Pathophysiology, Sign And Symptoms, Medical and Nursing Management
Chronic kidney disease is a type of kidney disease in which there is a gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. Chronic kidney disease is progressive irreversible destruction and dimension in renal function resulting in uremia and azotemia. It occurs from several days or months to years………..
Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered Coronavirus. which is spreading all over the world too fast. Most of the developed and developing countries are already affected by a coronavirus and now taking precautions to stop the spread of coronavirus. The incidence and types of coronavirus are given below. The most common and less common symptoms of coronavirus and its precaution are described.
Abnormal rarefaction of bone which may be idiopathic or secondary to other conditions.
This disorder leads to the thinning of skeletal and decreases precipitation of lime salt.
Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural determination of bone tissue that leads to increase bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture or breakdown (hips, vertebrae, forearm).
A type of hernia in which part of the stomach protrudes up through the esophageal opening of the Diaphragm. Hiatus hernia is an anatomical abnormality in which the part of the stomach protrudes up through the diaphragm into the chest. The exact cause is unknown. It may be due to, Increased pressure within the abdominal cavity. It may be due to – Heavy lifting, Pregnancy, Ascites, Frequent or hard coughing, Boilent vomiting, Starving etc…
Inflammation of the gastritis mucus membrane is called Gastritis. It may occur as a short episode or may be of long duration. clinically gastritis is classifies into types these are Acute Gastritis and Chronic Gastritis. on the basis of histology or endoscopic appearance classified into three types those are hemorrhagic , Non-Erosive and Specific gastritis.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is reflux (return) of gastric content (mainly acid) towards the mouth resulting in esophageal tissue damage. This is a chronic disease that occurs when stomach acid (HCL) or bile flows into the food pipe and irritates the inner lining. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) also known as Acid Reflux.